Require is an Anti-Pattern

Scala's require method is frequently used where better options are available.

To get started, I will show an example that demonstrates what require is frequently used for.

def transferMoney(amount: Int): TransferResult = {
  require(amount > 0, "amount to transfer must be greater than zero")
  // transfer money operations here

When I first encountered this pattern, I thought it was great. I loved being able to define up front in a function what its inputs should look like. Another nicety from this was that for the rest of the function I could assume that my required conditions were true. This often allowed the logic in functions to be simpler. So what’s the issue then? Well, I see several.

  1. The function is not actually covering the entire domain of its inputs. If a function doesn’t do this, it should really be a PartialFunction so the caller knows it doesn’t cover the entire domain.
  2. The caller has no way of knowing these restrictions exist without looking at the function directly.
  3. There’s a good chance a caller won’t “safely” call this function (e.g. wrapped in a Try) so the thrown exception could actually crash your program 😬.

The more I analyze this approach, the more I realize that I do like the idea of locking down my types more. What I don’t like about this is the way it is accomplished.

A Better Way

An open-source library called Refined has support for what I believe to be the ideal way to restrict types beyond their native definitions.

import eu.timepit.refined.api.Refined
import eu.timepit.refined.numeric._

type PositiveNonZeroInt = Int Refined Positive
final case class TransferResult(amountTransferred: PositiveNonZeroInt)

def transferMoney(amount: PositiveNonZeroInt): TransferResult = {
  // transfer money operations here


What Refined allowed me to do in the above example is create a new type that holds only positive non-zero integers. This means that what was previously being checked by a require statement is now built in to the type itself. This gives us the same benefits of require without any of the drawbacks enumerated above. Our function is now defined over its inputs’ entire domain and the caller has full visibility into the restrictions being imposed.


Using refined types is an easy way to lock down your types in a way that is transparent to the caller.

Reach out on Twitter or Github if you have any questions, comments, or corrections.

Subscribe to Jeff Lewis

Don’t miss out on the latest issues. Sign up now to get access to the library of members-only issues.